Pipelines take up an integral part in the development of modern day civilization. What’s more, pipeline transport has turned into the most essential method for moving liquids from one indicate the other. Pipelines have been utilized for centuries for the easy movement of water and pipeline played a great part for petroleum investigation revolution in the 1800’s (Antaki, 2003). Nowadays pipelines are utilized to move substances extending from water, oil or naturally found gases like ethanol, hydrogen gas, to drinks and pneumatically determined particulate solids (Shukov, 2009).
Pipelines regularly cost more than streets or open channels. Yet, they can offer diminishments in cost in light of shorter more straightforward courses than streets or open channels (Linsley et al, 1992).
Development of pipelines, particularly for vast scale water supply or petroleum ventures are expansive multi-disciplinary exercises which includes the speculation of a lot of money and different assets. In light of this, and the way that safety of workers and users is of high pith in the development and operation of pipelines (Kuryla, 2009) ecological components including the dirt that it will be laid upon or covered underneath ought to be considered intricately amid the outline design process.
Consideration: Tt refers to something to be considered or taken into account whilst assessing the advantages and disadvantages of a circumstance before taking a decision.
Design (Pipeline): It refers to the procedure of producing intricate plans and illustrations of the properties of the pipeline with regards to finding remedies for the existing and probable problems that may happen in the course of construction and process of the pipeline these tribulations can either be hydraulic, structural or geotechnical in nature.
Geotechnical: Utilization of technical know-how and skills to some extent of the earth material, normally the earth materials we can find on earth surface or near the earth’s surface (Holtz, 1981).
Pipeline: A pipe or system of pipes which are configured to transmit something substance like oil, natural gas, or other petroleum-based products and cover very long distances, usually underground.
Kinds of Pipelines
We can categorize the pipelines on basis of various requirements.
- Material utilized to make them: Pipelines are created out of various materials, for example, steel, cast press, plastic, non-ferrous metals, for example, aluminum; concrete, vitrified dirt and even wood.
- Substance Transported: As prior said, Pipelines can be utilized for transmission of substances, for example, water, disposed water, petroleum oil, gas, refreshment beverages and particulate matter, for example, concrete and flour.
- Strategy for Construction/Environment: Pipelines are basically type casted into seamless, crease welded, and flange jointed, contingent upon technique for joining. They are additionally named underground, over the ground, lifted, seaward and submerged (submarine sort)
- Work: Pipelines can be assorted under this heading as transmission, appropriation, or accumulation pipelines, in light of the capacity of that line in connection to the larger system of pipelines.
The intricate method for configuring and designing a pipeline is based on wide range of factors which incorporates: variety of substance transported, longitude of the pipeline, the setting of the pipeline, if the pipeline is laid on land or is laid offshore and if the climate is hot or cold. Liu (2003) says that the resemblance in configuration and designing all pipeline varieties exceeds the variations and dissimilarities and thus, after a person comprehends how a pipeline is designed and constructed, it will not be complicated for him to configure and built other variations of pipelines.
Pipeline Design and Build Process
Liu (2003) categorizes the planning and construction of pipelines into the following categories:
- Preliminary planning: Evaluating the source and objective of the pipeline, the estimated longitude of the pipeline, the substance to be transmitted, width and assortment of pipe to be utilized, hydraulic factors for example kinds of flows anticipated in a pipeline, the maximum capital cost and expenses for day to day operation.
- Route selection: The process of selection of route ranging from the highway map and/or a topographical map. In-flight photography should be intricately carried out to acquire data necessary for the design and configuration of route maps and property plats, which are needed for the right-of-way acquisition.
- Right-of-way Acquisition: This process of acquisition can be carried out by the landowners willingly bargaining with the pipeline proprietors for the sale, rent or easement of their respective land plots. Furthermore, for additional public pipelines, the method for condemnation, which is an instinctive legal process, might be utilized to obtain land.
- Soil borings, testing of soils and data collection: After the completion of acquisition of the right-of-way has been undertaken the pipeline developer can carry out other required geotechnical examinations and ascertain if the groundwater and/or hard rock will be met, and garner other required data along the route necessary for the design configuration of the pipeline.
- Design: This incorporates structural design (subjected to loading and stresses), hydraulic analysis and design and additionally designing of a job scheme or schedule.
- Seeking of Legal Permits: Permits from different agencies including the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, the forestry services of the various states and the Ministry of Transportation.
- Pipeline Construction: This involves the groundwork the laying of the pipes and the appurtenances required for the efficient economical activities of the pipelines. This includes right-of-way preparation, ditching and trenching, and other processes like boring, tunnelling, river crossing; welding, coating and wrapping; backfill and finally restoration of land.